Decisions of the CPC Central Committee and State Council on Implementation of Universal Two-Child Policy and Reformation and Perfection of Family Planning Service Management
ReleaseDate: 2023-01-09 14:54:42 ArticleHits:

As China’s basic state policy, family planning is related to the happiness and good health of hundreds of millions of families as well as comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society and realization of “Two Centenary Goals”. In order to implement the spirits of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, to adapt to the new trends of population and economic and social development, and to promote the long-term equilibrium development of population, the following decisions are made on implementation of the policy that a couple can give birth to two children (hereinafter referred to as universal two-child policy) and further reformation and perfection of family planning service management:

I. Fully realize the important significance of implementation of universal two-child policy and reformation and perfection of family planning service management.

(I) The family planning work has gained a remarkable achievement. In the 1950s and the 1960s, with the economic recovery, social stability, improvement of people’s livelihood and increase of medical treatment and health security level, China’s total population rapidly grew from 540 million in the early years of New China to 830 million in 1970, causing a huge pressure to the economic and social development. In order to control the excessive growth of population, our country has implemented family planning in cities and rural areas since the 1970s. In 1980, the Party Central Committee issued An Open Letter to All Communists and League Members on the Control of China’s Population Increase Problem, advocating that a couple should give birth to one child only. In 1982, family planning was determined as the basic state policy. Over the past 40 years, China has found a way with Chinese characteristics to solve the population problem by implementing a compound decision of population and development and continuously perfecting family planning policy. The excessive growth of population has been effectively controlled, the resource and environment pressure significantly relieved, the development state of women and children greatly improved, and the population quality obviously increased. Thus high-speed economic development and social progress are promoted, a strong support is provided for the reform and opening-up as well as socialist modernization causes, and a solid foundation is laid for the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society. The implementation of family planning in China has also made a great contribution to world population development and poverty reduction. In this way, the good image of a responsible great power is established. During this process, hundreds of millions of common people positively respond to the call of the party and country. They have conscientiously implemented family planning, making a huge contribution. The extensive population and family planning workers have sacrificed their efforts and sweat. Practice proves that family planning accords with China’s national situations and it is a correct policy. It has gained understanding and support from the extensive common people and it’s a great undertaking to make the country powerful, to make the people rich and to make the world stable.

(II) A great transitional change happens to population development in China. The population problem has always been a fundamental, global and strategic issue faced by the whole human society. The tendency variation of population will generate a comprehensive, profound and long-term influence on economic and social development. Since the beginning of the 21st century, especially the “12th Five-Year Plan” period, the internal motivation and external conditions of China’s population development have changed greatly. The growth momentum of total population is weakened significantly, the working-age population and number of fertile women are decreasing, and the aging degree is deepened continuously. A significant change happens to the masses’ childbearing concept, and fewer and better birth has already become the mainstream of social concept about childbearing. The family scale tends to decrease, and the function of providing for children and parents is weakened. Demographic dividend is weakened, and the international competitive advantage focusing on human capitals should be further strengthened. These changes have brought about new challenges to population security and economic and social development. Meanwhile, we should acutely realize that China’s total population will still maintain above 1.3 billion in the middle period of this century. The basic national condition of high population will not change fundamentally, the pressure of population on economic and social development will not change fundamentally, and the strained relation between population and resources and environment will not change fundamentally. At present, China is in a critical period of transforming from a populous country into a country of powerful human capitals. We must fully realize the importance and chronicity of sticking to the basic state policy of family planning by starting from a global and strategic height. Besides, we should correctly handle the relations between present and future, gross and structure, as well as population and resources and environment by following the rule according to the basic national situations. The childbearing policy should be adjusted and perfected gradually and the long-term equilibrium development of population must be promoted. Population needs to play a dynamic role in economic and social development to the largest extent. In this way, we are able to firmly grasp the strategic initiative.

(III) Implementation of universal two-child policy and reformation and perfection of family planning service management will be the important strategic plan of sticking to the basic state policy of family planning under the new situation. At the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, the important decision of sticking to the basic state policy of family planning and initiating the implementation of separate two-child policy was made. Separate two-child policy should be implemented stably, firmly and orderly, to accumulate experience for further adjustment and perfection of childbearing policy. At present, there is a qualified condition and it is the ripe time to initiate the implementation of universal two-child policy. Implementation of universal two-child policy and reformation and perfection of family planning service management is an important measure to promote the long-term equilibrium development of population. It will help to optimize the population structure, increase the labor supply and relieve the pressure of population aging. Moreover, it can help to promote sustainable and healthy development of economy and society and to realize the objective of comprehensively constructing a moderately prosperous society. In addition, it will also help to better implement the basic state policy of family planning and to promote family happiness and social harmony. Party committees and governments at all levels should fully realize the importance of implementation of universal two-child policy and reformation and perfection of family planning service management. They need to enhance their sense of responsibility and sense of mission, and to continuously explore the system and mechanism as well as modes and methods of the basic state policy of family planning under the new situation, making family planning a sweet cause benefiting hundreds of millions of families.

II. Guiding ideology, basic principle and main objective

(IV) Guiding ideology

We should hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, comprehensively implement the spirits of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and deeply carry out General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech spirits under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thoughts of “Three Represents” and Scientific Outlook on Development. Moreover, we must stick to “Four-Pronged” Comprehensive Strategy. Additionally, we need to persist in the basic state policy of family planning, and to comprehensively advance childbearing policy, service management system, family development support system and comprehensive reform of governance mechanism by focusing on the enhancement of family harmony and happiness as well as promotion of long-term equilibrium development of population. Besides, we should try to realize moderate-scale, high-quality, optimal-structured and reasonably-distributed equilibrium development of population, promote harmonious and sustainable development of population, economy, society, resources and environment, and provide a solid foundation and lasting power for realizing Chinese nation’s great rejuvenation.

(V) Basic principle

——People first. The dominant position of families in family planning should be respected and the equity between rights and obligations must be realized. Management should be placed in service, so as to guide the masses to give birth responsibly in a planned way.

——Innovative development. The population and family planning work should be driven to transform from the control of population size into adjustment of total amount, improvement of quality and optimization of structure, from management first into emphasis on serving families, and from dependence on government force into multi-governance of government, society and citizens.

——Guidance of law. Legislation should be made to play a full role in guiding, standardizing and guaranteeing the perfection of childbearing policy and service management reform. We should stick to strict, standard, fair and civilized law enforcement, to continuously improve the legal level of family planning.

——Integrating development. Attention should be paid to the systematicness, integrality and synchronization of reform measures. Adjustment and perfection of childbearing policy and service management reform must be advanced synchronously, and supporting policy measures need to be formulated synchronously.

(VI) Main objective

The family planning service management system and family development support system should be relatively perfect by 2020. The multi-governance situation in which the government performs its duties according to law, the society participates extensively and the masses are honest and self-disciplined should be formed. Moreover, the family planning ability must be improved comprehensively. The convenient and efficient family planning service system of material and child hygiene covering urban and rural areas with reasonable layout and complete functions should be perfected, and everyone should be able to enjoy the high-quality service of family planning, so as to drive the implementation of sustainable development agenda of the United Nations in 2030. A moderate fertility level should be maintained, and the total population must be controlled within the planned target.

III. Stably, firmly and orderly implement universal two-child policy

(VII) The implementation of universal two-child policy should be organized according to law. The newly modified The Population and Family Planning Law of the People’s Republic of China must be implemented, and relevant administrative laws and regulations as well as local laws and regulations should be perfected. The universal two-child policy should be implemented from 2016. The governments of various provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) need to comprehensively evaluate the local population development situations, family planning work foundation and policy implementation risks, scientifically formulate and implement schemes, report them to competent departments of the State Council, and ensure that the policy is implemented stably and the fertility level does not fluctuate substantially.

(VIII) The childbearing service management system should be reformed. The childbearing registration service system must be implemented. No approval is needed when people give birth to less than two (including two) children and the families can autonomously arrange the childbearing situations. Re-birth management under remarriage should be improved. The service process must be optimized, the procedures need to be simplified, online service should be comprehensively promoted, and further convenience must be provided for common people by streamlining administration.

(IX) Newly-born population monitoring and prediction should be strengthened. Population change survey must be reinforced, and the population change trend of newly-born population should be predicted scientifically. Moreover, a newly born population monitoring and early warning mechanism needs to be established. The promotion of national basic population information database and population health information construction should be accelerated. Meanwhile, the interconnection of national and provincial-level population and family planning information must be realized, and information sharing of household management, marriage, population health, education and social security should be realized.

(X) Public service resources should be reasonably allocated. Material and child hygiene, child care, preschool, primary and secondary school education, and social security resources must be reasonably allocated according to the childbearing service requirements and population changes. The social force should be guided and encouraged to establish service institutions including non-profit women’s and children’s hospitals, inclusive nurseries and kindergartens.

IV Vigorously improve the family planning service management level

(XI) Family planning service of women and children health should be strengthened. Full service of sound child-rearing must be advanced, pre-pregnancy health check should be implemented, health care services and comprehensive control of birth defects need to be strengthened, and the population quality should be increased. Necessary assisted reproductive technology services should be provided for people with reproductive difficulties such as infertility. Standardized construction and standardized management of family planning service institutions of material and child hygiene must be advanced; emergency and severe cases treatment ability building for pregnant and lying-in women as well as newborns needs to be enhanced. Talent cultivation of obstetricians, paediatricians, midwives and nurses should be accelerated, the service price must be determined reasonably, and the force of policy support should be enhanced in the aspect of salary distribution. Informed choice must be promoted comprehensively; safe, efficient and suitable contraception and birth control services should be provided for people of reproductive age; the fairness and accessibility of services need to be increased. Moreover, fundamental research and technical innovation should be strengthened, to develop and promote new techniques and new products of contraception and birth control, sound child-rearing and reproductive health.

(XII) The equalization of basic public health and family planning services for migrant population should be promoted. Service resources must be allocated according to permanent population, and migrant population should be brought into the urban basic public health and family planning service scope. The working mechanism of “a single chessboard” for information exchange, service supplementation and management interaction of migrant population must be consolidated and perfected. Meanwhile, online information checking and sharing should be advanced, and birth registration services need to be provided for migrant population in the place of residence. Reproductive health propaganda should be carried out extensively, and the health care consciousness and protection ability of groups like migrant population must be enhanced. Loving care should be shown for migrant population and left-behind crowd, to promote social integration.

(XIII) The grass-roots foundation work should be intensified. The long-acting working mechanism of family planning involving advocacy, management by law, first-rate service, policy promoting and comprehensive treatment must be perfected. Besides, the activity of establishing advanced units of first-rate services in family planning needs to be carried out deeply. The comprehensive supervision and administrative law enforcement system of health and family planning must be established and perfected; service management ability building of family planning should be strengthened. In addition, the working force of county-level and township-level family planning must be stabilized and strengthened, and the problems about remuneration, treatment and old-age security of special cadres of family planning should be solved properly.

(XIV) The social organization should play a full role. Cooperative governance between government and society should be strengthened, and alliances including labor union, communist youth league and women’s federation as well as other social organizations must be extensively mobilized to complete the family planning work. Family planning associations need to play a role of fresh troops, and organization and ability building of county-level and township-level family planning associations must be practically strengthened. They must better assume the tasks of publicity and education, reproductive health consultation service, sound child-rearing guidance, assistance for one-child families, rights and interests maintenance, and migrant population service. Meanwhile, social organizations should be encouraged to carry out public charity and assistance activities of population and family planning according to law. In urban and rural communities as well as enterprises and public institutions, the masses should be guided to extensively conduct self-management, self-service, self-education and self-supervision of family planning.

V. Establish a supporting system beneficial to the development of one-child families

(XV) The assistance force for one-child families should be increased. The legitimate interests of one-child families must be practically guaranteed, to give them priorities to share the achievements of reform and development. The existing awards and helping policies should still be implemented for one-child families and double-daughter families in rural areas, and privileges must be offered to them in the aspects of social security, collective income distribution, employment and entrepreneurship, and new rural construction. The encouragement and assistance system and special assistance system for one-child families should be perfected, and dynamic regulation must be realized for the supporting standards. One-child families with special difficulties should be able to get help, and their problems in daily care, old-age security, serious illness and spiritual consolation must be properly solved. Moreover, family planning should be combined with poverty relief and development, and the project of “bearing little and getting rich quickly” must be further implemented. No award or privilege will be provided for parents willing to have one child only after policy adjustment.

(XVI) The family’s function of providing for children and parents should be enhanced. Family development policies, covering childbearing support, infant rearing, adolescent development, old-age endowment and sick care, must be established and perfected. Childbearing according to policy is encouraged. Service functions, such as community child care, elderly care in the daytime and home-based care for the aged, should be enhanced. The combination of health care and service for the aged must be advanced, and a long-term care insurance system should be explored and established. The assistance and supporting force for the disabled families, poor families and elderly people living alone needs to be increased. The plan of creating a happy family and new family should be conducted extensively.

(XVII) Gender equality should be promoted in the society. The action of caring for girls must be deeply conducted, and a social environment beneficial to girls’ growth should be created. Comprehensive treatment needs to be conducted for the problem of high sex ratio at birth, and the behavior of fetal sex diagnosis without medical science needs and manual abortion according to gender must be strictly attacked according to law. Women’s rights of inheritance of house sites and buildings as well as land contract rights should be guaranteed according to law. Moreover, women’s legitimate interests of employment and vacation must be ensured according to law, and supports should be provided for women to return to work after childbearing. Employers should be encouraged to formulate measures that can help employees balance the relation between work and family.

VI. Practically strengthen organizational leadership

(XVIII) The party and government responsibilities should be performed. Party committees and governments at all levels need to guarantee that the party and government grasp and take full charge of family planning. Implementation of universal two-child policy and reformation and perfection of family planning service management should be put as the major task of comprehensive deepening of reform. Overall planning, policy coordination and work implementation must be reinforced. They should stick to and perfect objective management responsibility system, and ensure responsibility fulfillment, proper measures and suitable input. “One-vote veto” system should be implemented for situations in which aims and tasks of population and family planning are completed, serious falsification exists, and unlawful administration causes a baneful influence.

(XIX) Department cooperation should be strengthened. Part-time member and leading group system of family planning must be further perfected. An assessment mechanism for influences of important economic and social policies on population development should be established and perfected. Moreover, effective connection of relevant economic and social policies and family planning policy must be promoted. Various departments need to seriously perform their duties, solve problems of policy supporting, public service assurance, law enforcement coordination and information exchange, and strengthen the guidance for the work in different regions.

(XX) The study on population development strategy should be deepened. The interactive relation between population and economy, society, resource and environment under the new situation must be deeply studied, and the changing trends of population size, quality, structure and distribution should be explored. Besides, prospective study needs to be strengthened, population development strategy should be perfected, and medium-term and long-term plans must be formulated. The influences of economic growth and social development on birth behavior should be evaluated scientifically, and the changing trend of fertility level must be accurately studied and judged, to make policy reserves. In addition, international comparative study on population development should be enhanced and international exchange and cooperation must be promoted.

(XXI) Publicity and public opinion guidance should be conducted. Various departments in different regions need to unify thoughts and behaviors in deployment decision of the central government, vigorously propagandize the great achievements obtained in family planning, and interpret the policy about implementation of universal two-child policy. Besides, understanding about the basic national condition of population and basic state policy of family planning should be strengthened, and the social awareness about national conditions and state policies must be enhanced continuously. The good experience and practice of family planning service management reform should be summarized and promoted, and advanced examples must be commended. The social opinion needs to be correctly guided, and a good atmosphere of supporting policy implementation, reform and innovation should be created.

(XXII) Supervision and implementation should be intensified. Various departments in different regions need to formulate implementation plans, to subdivide the reform tasks, and to clarify implementation steps according to the requirements of this decision. Follow-up assessment for various reform measures should be strengthened; budding and tendentious problems in the reform must be discovered and solved in time. Party committees and governments of various provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) should send a special report about local situations of family planning work to the central government every year, and the central government needs to conduct supervision at regular intervals.

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